Procedures Involved in Heart Surgery

Different types of surgeries are performed depending on the heart condition. Aortic surgery, Valvular Surgery, Arrhythmia Surgery, Heart plantation are a few of those types.

In India, some top heart surgery hospitals in Bangalore perform these treatments with high safety and the latest well-developed equipment.


EPS & RFA is a diagnosis and treatment method used for arrhythmia. To detect whether the patient is having arrhythmia EPS or Electrophysiology is done. And RFA or Radiofrequency ablation is a type of surgical treatment done for certain types of arrhythmia.

A study that shows how the electric impulse conducts through the pathways of the heart is called EPS. If the pathway is normal it shows that the heart rate is normal. If any abnormal signals are shown, it indicates irregular heartbeats or arrhythmia.

Causes of Arrhythmia :

Arrhythmias are caused by High blood pressure, Valve disorder, Electrolyte imbalance, Post cardiac attack, and a few more reasons.

Symptoms that show you have Arrhythmia :

Symptoms for this would be different from one person to another, but some of the common symptoms are Heart fluttering, dizziness, feeling light-headed, fatigue, palpitation, etc

Steps to follow after the operation :

  • Right after the procedure, lie patiently for 2-3 hours, since legs might feel weak initially.
  • Contact the doctor if the symptoms still exist or increase even after a couple of days.
  • Avoid activities like swimming, diving, squatting, etc.
  • Do small works for 5-10 mins many times in a day, but do not lift heavy objects.

Angiography :

Angiography is a test used to study the arteries or veins in the heart, brain, abdomen, etc. It indicates whether there is any blockage or wrong formation within arteries, veins, and different blood vessels.

There are different types of Angiogram tests such as Coronary angiography, Cerebral angiography, Pulmonary angiography, and Renal angiography.

Risk Factor associated with Angiography :

  • Bleeding under skin
  • Stroke
  • Infection or Bruising
  • Damage of Tissue because of X-ray radiation
  • Heart attack

Steps to follow after the operation :

  • Do not drive for the next 3 days as the doctor prescribes.
  • Mild Headache is natural sometimes.
  • Do not use bathtubs or swimming for a minimum of 3 days.
  • Use clean and dry clothes.

Bentall Surgery :

Bentall procedure is a treatment done to treat aneurysms in the aortic root. The diseased part of the aortic root is replaced with a biological or mechanical valve.

The aortic root connects the aorta with the heart and comprises three regions such as the aortic valve, the annulus, and its leaflets.


Bentall surgery is performed if the aortic valve of the heart is not closing properly, the inner layer of the aorta turns up because of higher pressure, Or Irregular growth of tissue in the aortic root which interrupts blood flow.

Symptoms :

  • If there is high blood pressure, it results in this condition.
  • An aneurysm is caused by an infection within the cardiac tissues.
  • Atherosclerosis happens because of lipid deposition in the arteries.
  • An increase in the cholesterol level in the blood results in constriction of the blood vessels.
  • Pain in chest and back region.
  • Struggle in air inhalation.
  • Hoarseness in voice.

Risk factors associated with the Bentall procedure :

  • Arrhythmias
  • Blurred Vision
  • Struggling to focus
  • Infection
  • Cardiac arrest and stroke
  • Blood clots in different parts

Steps to follow post-treatment :

  • The dressing should be followed until the spots go away.
  • Might face constipation, which is common post a long operation.
  • Change posture often and take deep breaths to sleep comfortably.
  • Might feel difficult to sleep or have interrupted sleep.
  • May feel a little feverish or cold during early days post-surgery.

Pacemaker Implantation :

To control irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias, a little electrically charged biomedical equipment is implanted under the skin within the heart. This process is known as Pacemaker Implantation surgery and is offered by some of the top heart surgery hospitals in Bangalore.

Modern Pacemakers are rate-responsive, which sends a steady signal if it detects slow heartbeats or when it misses a beat. For normal pace, it doesn’t send any signals. This is controlled by sensors in pacemakers, which detect movement of the body and breathing rates.

There are three different types of pacemakers and depending on the heart condition the doctor may decide the right pacemaker after conducting various tests. The types are Single chambered pacemaker, Dual-chamber pacemaker, Biventricular pacemaker.

Who needs a Pacemaker?

Pacemaker Implantation is required for those with :

  • Abnormally slow heartbeat
  • Tachycardia or abnormally fast heartbeat
  • Heart conditions with low or discontinuous pulse rates.
  • Irregular transmission of electric impulses from the heart.

Symptoms :

  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Angina or chest pain
  • Palpitations or fluttering
  • Increased suffering from coronary heart disease.
  • Lightheadedness

The risk factor associated with Pacemaker Implantation :

  • Infection in implanted regions.
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Damage of blood vessels
  • Severe bleeding
  • Collapsing of lungs

Steps to follow post-operation :

  • Avoid rough contact
  • Don’t do heavy workouts
  • Don’t lift any weights over 5 pounds
  • Avoid rubbing of the chest area
  • Visit the doctor frequently for a period of time
  • Avoid metal securities
  • Avoid keeping radio frequency emitting devices near the implant area.

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